Sikkim History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts

Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Sikkim, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Sikkim have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.

Sikkim Quick General Knowledge

State NameSikkim (सिक्किम)
State LevelState
CapitalGangtok
Statehood16 May 1975
Largest CityGangtok
Total Area7,096 sq km
Districts4
Current Chief MinisterPrem Singh Tamang
Current GovernorGanga Prasad
State BirdBlood pheasant
State FlowerDendrobium nobile
State Animalred panda
State TreeRhododendron niveum
LanguagesNepali
State DanceChoo Phat Dance, Sikmari, Singhai Cham or Snow Lion Dance, Yak Cham etc.

Sikkim (सिक्किम)

Sikkim is a state located in the northeast of the country. Gangtok is the capital of Sikkim and the largest city in the state. West Bengal to the south of Sikkim borders its international border with Nepal to the west, Bhutan to the southeast, and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north-east. Sikkim is the second smallest state in India and the least populous state.

The history of Sikkim has been known since 1642, when Phuntsong Namgyal was declared the first Chogyal (king) of Sikkim. There have been many important events in the history of Sikkim related to tribal rulers, British rule and the incorporation of this state into India. Huh. Before the Lepchas attacked and gained power in the 17th century, this kingdom was ruled by Mon, Nowong and Chang. Sikkim at that time had a monarchy and the most prominent kingdom here was the Chogyal. When the British arrived in India, the dynasty of Sikkim formed an alliance to fight against the Nepalese and Bhutanese who were becoming a threat to Sikkim.

After India gained independence in 1947, Sikkim became a protected state under India. The people of Sikkim wanted more political freedom through democracy, so on April 23, 1975, the Constitution Amendment Bill to make Sikkim a separate state was introduced in the Lok Sabha. It was passed on the same day by a vote of 299-11. At the same time, this bill was passed in the Rajya Sabha on 26 April and thus on 15 May 1975, Sikkim officially became the 22nd state of India.


The state is geographically located at 27.33 degrees north and 88.62 degrees east. The city is located at an altitude of 5,500 feet on the Shivalik hills. The view of Kangchenjunga, the third highest mountain in the world can be seen from Gangtok. The total area of ​​Sikkim is about 7,000 square kilometers. Most of the area of ​​this state is mountainous. The state has about 28 mountain peaks, 21 glaciers and over 200 lakes. The river Teesta is called the lifeline of Sikkim. The other rivers of the state are Rangit, Rangpo and Lachung. The state flower of Sikkim is 'Yeroom Lei'. The state bird of Sikkim is the 'blood pheasant'. The state tree of Sikkim is 'Rhododendron'. The state animal of Sikkim is the 'Red Panda'.
The climate of Sikkim is temperate in the south, while the north part of the state has a tundra type of climate. Sikkim has five seasons: winter, summer, spring, autumn and rainy season. In Sikkim, the average temperature varies between 18 degree to 28 degree in the summer season. Due to the tundra type of climate, the northern part of the state is covered with snow for about 4 months of the year and the night temperature goes up to zero degree. The average annual rainfall in the state is up to 325 cm.

The state of Sikkim has 32 seats in the Legislative Assembly, 01 seat of the Lok (Parliamentary) Assembly and 01 seat of the Rajya Sabha. The Sikkim High Court is the smallest High Court in the country.

The major political parties of the state are Sikkim Democratic Front, Sikkim National Liberation Front, Sikkim Sangram Parishad, Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Indian National Congress.

The state is currently ruled by the Sikkim Democratic Front (SDF) party. The current Chief Minister of Sikkim is Prem Singh Tamang. He took the position on 27 May 2019. The first person to become the Chief Minister of Sikkim was Qazi Landup Dorji of the Indian National Congress. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 16 May 1975.

The current Governor of Sikkim is Srinivas Dadasaheb Patil. Srinivasa Dadasaheb Patil was sworn in as the Governor of Sikkim on July 2013.


According to the figures of 2004, the gross domestic product of Sikkim has been estimated at $ 478 million.
Agriculture is the mainstay of the state's economy. Agriculture is done in traditional method in terraced fields. The major crops here are maize, rice, wheat, potato, large cardamom, ginger and orange. Sikkim is the largest producer of large cardamom in the country. Cardamom is produced in most of its land. Other cash crops here are ginger, potato, orange and non-seasonal vegetables.
According to the 2011 census, the literacy rate of Sikkim is 87.75%. There are about 1545 government schools and 18 private schools in the state which are mainly in the cities. More than half of these are run with the help of the government and the rest by private entities. There are about 12 colleges and other schools in Sikkim for higher education.

Several types of mineral substances are also found in the state, mainly copper, quartzite, talc, dolomite and limestone, mica, marble, base metal, graphite, sillimanite, thermal springs, coal, etc.

The Lepcha people of Sikkim do bamboo goods, wooden articles, thread weaving and weaving of gullies very efficiently by traditional methods. Major industries in the state include liquor industry, tea industry, large cardamom industry, food processing, ginger and turmeric industry.


According to the 2011 census, Sikkim has a population of 610,577 lakhs. In which the population of males is 323,070 thousand and the population of females is 287,507 thousand. The Lepchas are the original and native inhabitants of this place. The Bhutias, who hail from the Kham district of Tibet, are another ethnic group in Sikkim. The third largest ethnic group in Sikkim is Nepalese and they also have a large population in the state. Some descendants of Tibetans are also found in the northern and eastern parts of the state.
The clothing of Sikkim is quite different from other states of the country. The women in the state wear a blouse above the waist and cover the head with a type of dupatta. Most of the men wear tight mirzai-like high kurta. They keep cloth tied around their waist. Bhotia men and women wear long cloaks. The women of all castes here wear jewelery made of gold, turquoise, stone and various kinds of pearls.

Sikkim's cultural heritage is very rich due to the Lepchas and the mixed tradition of Hinduism and Buddhism that they have together. Western rock music is often heard in non-urban areas in homes and eateries in the state. Hindi music has also made its place among the people. Pure Nepali rock music, and Nepali poetry on western music are also very popular. Football and cricket are the most popular sports here. The masked dance performed by the Lamas in the courtyard of the monastery in Sikkim is the most colorful dance in North-East India. Other folk dances of the state include Lu Khangathmo, Rechungma, Maruni, Limbu or Subba folk dance, folk songs.

The ensemble of Sikkim is quite different from other states of the country. In the state, women wear a blouse above the waist and cover the head with a type of scarf. Most of the men wear tight mirzunuma elevated tunic. They tie a cloth to the waist. Bhotiya men and women wear long tongs. Women of all castes here wear jewelery of gold, turquoise, leaf and all kinds of pearl rings.


Nepali is the main language of Sikkim. English and Hindi are also often spoken and understood in Sikkim. The second most spoken language is Bhutia, which has strong ties to the Tibeto-Burma family. Other languages here include Bhutia, Jokha, Groma, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Magar, Majhi, Majhwar, Nepalbhasha, Danuvar, Sherpa, Sunwar, Tam ता, Thulung, Tibetan and Yakkha.
In Sikkim, pig meat is a popular short diet here. Other Sikkim delicacies include Sukako Macha, Gucci, Sidr and Sukuti, Dhero, Phukorah, Momo, Pakku, Kodo Roti, Phapar Roti, Chambarey, Achaar, Su Zoom, Wachipa, Alum, Foldog, Falaki, Chawela, Quanti, Chatari Etc. Noodle based dishes such as Thukpa, Choumin, Thantuk, Fakhtu, Gyathuk and Wonton etc. Beer, whiskey, rum and brandy etc. are consumed due to the low state excise duty on wines in the state.
Losar is the major festival of the state. People of all religions of Sikkim celebrate their festivals. People of Hindu religion celebrate Holi, Dussehra, Deepawali, Ganesh Chaturthi etc. People of Buddhism are festivals like Lhosar, Lusong, Saga Dawa, Lhabab Duchen, Drupka Teshi and Bhumchu. Other festivals include Sakeva (Rai), Sonam Lochar (Gurung), Barahimzog (Magar), etc.

According to the 2011 census, Sikkim has a population of 610,577 lakhs. In which the population of men is 323,070 thousand and the population of women is 287,507 thousand. Lepcha is native and native to this place. The Bhutias from the Kham district of Tibet are the second ethnic group of Sikkim. Nepali is the third largest ethnic group in Sikkim and they also have a large population in the state. Some descendants of Tibetans are also found in the northern and eastern parts of the state.

There are mainly two religions widespread in Sikkim, which includes Hinduism and Buddhism. Although some parts of the state also have people from the Christian community who were earlier of Lepcha origin but later converted to religion by the colonial British. Even less than that, the number of people of Muslim community here is the least.


Sikkim is a major center of tourism in India. Sikkim has many scenic tourist spots due to its natural beauty. The temples and other religious sites, museums, national parks also attract tourists from all over the world. Important tourist destinations here are Gangtok, Pelling, Yumthang Valley, Tashiding Monastery, Phodong Monastery, Kanchenjunga Mountain Peak, Chungu Lake, Pelling, Kanchenjunga National Park, Phamong Lho Wildlife Sanctuary, Menam Wildlife Sanctuary, Encheya Monastery, Tomgo Lake, Gurudong Lake, Gurudong Lake Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Siliguri, Tashiding Monastery and Thakurbadi etc.

There are a total of 04 districts in the state of Sikkim, the largest district of East Sikkim State by population while the largest district by area is West Sikkim.

Sikkim has the following 04 districts: - East Sikkim, North Sikkim, South Sikkim and West Sikkim.


  • In April 2021, the South Korean delegation—comprising senior officials of the Embassy of the Republic of Korea, Korean Trade-Investment Promotion Agency (KOTRA), Korea Start-up Centre, K-Sure and Korea India Research & Innovation Center (KRRI)—met Sikkim state minister of tourism & civil aviation and commerce & industries Mr. Bedu Singh Panth to explore the feasibility of investments in multiple sectors in the state.
  • The Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Sikkim expanded at a high CAGR of 15.86% between 2015-16 and 2019-20.
  • In January 2021, Chief Minister Mr. Prem Singh Golay launched ‘Visit Sikkim 2022’, a declaration on year-long tourism promotion and marketing for Sikkim. He emphasized on having tourists in Sikkim for the whole year.
  • In the Union Budget 2021, the government allocated funds worth Rs. 1,100 crore to the Sivok – Rangpo project (length: 44.96 kms) in Sikkim.
  • As of April 2021, Sikkim had a total installed power generation capacity of 677.83 MW, of which 169.65 MW was under the central sector, state utilities (412.11 MW) and private sector (96.07 MW). Of the total installed power generation capacity, 105.65 MW was contributed by thermal, 520.00 MW by hydro and 52.18 MW by renewable energy.
  • The state attracted Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) equity inflow worth US$ 6.35 billion during April 2000 and September 2020 according to the data released by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT).



    Sikkim FAQs:

    𝒜. Sikkim state got statehood on 16 May 1975.

    𝒜. The capital of Sikkim state is Gangtok.

    𝒜. The folkdances of Sikkim state are: Choo Phat Dance, Sikmari, Singhai Cham or Snow Lion Dance, Yak Cham etc.

    𝒜. The state bird name is Blood pheasant and the state animal name is red panda of Sikkim state.

    𝒜. The current chief minster is Prem Singh Tamang and the governor is Ganga Prasad of Sikkim state.

    𝒜. The name of state flower is Dendrobium nobile and the state tree is Rhododendron niveum of Sikkim state.

      Last update :  2022-06-28 11:44:49
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      Post Category :  Indian States

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