West Bengal History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts
Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of West Bengal, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of West Bengal have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.
West Bengal is a state located in the eastern part of the country. Kolkata is the capital of West Bengal and the largest city in the state. The northern part of the state is located in Bhutan and Sikkim, Bangladesh in the eastern part and Assam in the north-eastern part, Bay of Bengal in the southern part, Odisha in the south-western part, Nepal in the north-western part and Bihar in the western part. The main language of West Bengal is Bangla.
Bengal has a special place in the history of the country. At the time of Alexander's invasion, there was a kingdom called 'Gangaridayi' in Bengal. Islamic rule over Bengal started from the 13th century and developed into a prosperous center of trade and industry during the Mughal rule in the 16th century. European merchants had arrived here by the end of the 15th century and by the end of the 18th century the area had come under the control of the British East India Company. The British Empire in India originated from here. India became independent in 1947 and at the same time, Bengal, the Muslim population divided into East Bengal (which later became Bangladesh) and the Hindu province of West Bengal (Indian Bengal).
The total area of West Bengal spread over the eastern part of the country is 88,752 sq km. is. The state is surrounded by Bangladesh in the east, Bhutan and Sikkim in the north, Assam in the north-east, Jharkhand and Bihar in the west. The geographical location of the state is 23 degrees north latitude and 88 degrees east longitude. The estuary (Sundarbans) of the Ganges River is the largest estuary (delta) in the world. Rivers Teesta, Mahananda, Torsa etc. flow in the northern mountainous part. Damodar, Ajay, Kangsabati etc. are the major streams in the western plateau. The state bird of West Bengal is the 'White-throated Kilkilla'. The state flower of West Bengal is 'Prajakta'. The state tree of West Bengal is 'Chaitian'.
The climate of West Bengal is tropical humid arid. State annual average temperature 26.8 ° C. lives. In summer, the minimum temperature goes from about 30 ° to 40 °. Between December and February, the minimum temperature in winter is 12 ° C. It goes till The state receives maximum rainfall in the month of August.
There is a unicameral Vidhan Bhavan in the Indian state of West Bengal. The state assembly has 295 members, of whom 294 are nominated directly by the public and one member of the Anglo-Indian community. 58 members from the state go to the Indian Parliament - 16 Rajya Sabha and 42 Lok Sabha.
Among the national parties of the state, Communist Party, Marxist, CPI, All India Forward Bloc, Bahujan Samaj Party, Indian National Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party, Samajwadi Party and regional parties Trinamool Congress, SUCI, CPIML, Jharkhand Mukti Morcha, PDS, JDS, JDU, Many political parties such as the RSP are involved.
West Bengal currently has a Trinamool Congress government. Mamta Banerjee is the current Chief Minister of West Bengal. She has been working as the first woman Chief Minister of the state since 2011. The first person to become the Chief Minister of West Bengal was Prafulla Chandra Ghosh. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 15 August 1947.
The current governor of West Bengal is Jagdeep Dhankhar. Jagdeep Dhankar has been sworn in as the Governor of West Bengal on 30 July 2019.
West Bengal is the primary trade and financial center of eastern India. The state is mainly dependent on agriculture and medium-sized industry. West Bengal has jute industry, tea industry. West Bengal is rich in minerals like coal. Since the independence of India, the Green Revolution has sidelined the state. However, food production has increased significantly since the 1980s.
Agriculture is an important contributor to the state's economy. The total food production in the state in the year 2006-07 was 15820 thousand tonnes. West Bengal is the largest jute producing state in India. It is also a major producer of tea. It occupies an important place in the rice producing states of India. Other major crops of the state are potato, oilseeds, betel, tobacco, wheat, barley and maize.
Education in West Bengal is provided by both the public sector as well as the private sector. The modern education system was developed by British missionaries and Indian social reformers.
The mineral production of the state is also good which includes dolomite, limestone and ceramic.>/p>
As per the available data of West Bengal year 2007, 96 projects with an investment of Rs. 3677.51 crore were started. The state has a wide variety of industries such as steel plants, automobile manufacturing plants and several chemical, machinery, construction and light-engineering industries.
According to the 2011 census, West Bengal has a population of 9,12,76,1115. The density of West Bengal's population is 1029 per sq km. is. The ratio of men and women to the total population of the state is 947. The population of West Bengal is dominated by the Bengali population. The population of West Bengal has been rich in diversity due to people coming from other states.
The costumes of West Bengal are known for their distinctive features and are perhaps the most popular example of our culture. The traditional dress of Bengali men is dhoti. The top or kurta which is paired with a dhoti is called Punjabi.
There is a long and well-organized tradition of dance, music and movies in West Bengal. Bangla literature dates back to the 12th century. The Chaitanya movement, a condensed emotional form of Hinduism, was inspired by the medieval saint Chaitanya (1485–1533). Cricket and football are among the most popular sports here. According to the painting, it is mainly based on clay sculptures, carvings of pucca bricks (terracotta) and decorations. The Asiatic Society of Bengal, West Bengal, the famous Indian Historical Research Assembly of the 19th century.
The main language of West Bengal is Bangla. Hindi, Urdu, Nepali, Udya, Santali and English are also spoken in many parts of the state. The English language is used for administration and business functions. Nepali is the official language of the three subdivisions of Darjeeling district.
Each caste has its own separate food in the state of West Bengal. The people of West Bengal like fish and rice a lot. West Bengal is famous for sweets. Rasgulla was also invented here.
The most important festival of the state is Durga Puja. Apart from this, festivals like Kali Puja, Saraswati Puja, Deepavali, Basant Panchami, Lakshmi Puja, Holi, Shivaratri, Janmashtami, Eid, Christmas etc. are also celebrated with pomp. Gangasagar Mela, Kendoli Mela, Jalpesh Mela, Rash Mela and Pausha Mela are prominent among the fairs held in Bengal.
There are more than 40 recognized tribal communities in West Bengal. The most well known of these are Santals, Oraos, Munas, Lepchas and Bhutias.
The diversity of physical characteristics of West Bengal makes the state a favorite destination for tourists. The hill stations of West Bengal are the biggest attraction of the state. The main tourist places of West Bengal include Howrah Bridge, Ayodhya Hill, Cooch Behar Palace, Raiganj Bird Sanctuary, Mahan Banyan Tree, Belur Math, Garchumuk, Panitaras-Samtaber, Vidyasagar Setu, Jalpaiguri, Bagmundi, Birchaninath, Budhapur, Chara, Gunpur, Curzon Gate, Kanchannagar, Kalyanoswari Temple, Kolkata, Digha, Bakkhali Sea Resort, Sundarbans National Park, Bandel, Tarakeswar, Hooghly, Shanti Niketan and Darjeeling, Kalimpong etc.
There are a total of 23 districts in West Bengal. The largest district is North Twenty Four Parganas by population, while the largest district by area is South Twenty Four Parganas District.
The following 23 districts of the state are: - Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Cooch Behar, Uttar Dinajpur, South Dinajpur, Malda, Birbhum, Murshidabad, Bardhaman, Nadia, Purulia, Bankura, Hooghly, North 24 Parganas, East Medinipur, Howrah, Kolkata, South Twenty Four Parganas. , West Medinipur, Alipurduar, Kalimpong, Jhargram and Paschim Bardhaman.
The Gross State Domestic Product (GDP) of West Bengal is estimated at Rs 14.44 trillion in 2020-21. The average annual GSDP growth rate from 2015-16 to 2020-21 is about 12.62%.
West Bengal is the largest producer of rice in India. Rice production for the state totalled 14.99 million tonnes in 2017-18. and During 2018-19, the state produced a total of 1.85 million tonnes of fish.
West Bengal is the second largest tea-producing state in India and is home to the globally acclaimed Darjeeling tea variety.
It is in vicinity to mineral rich states like Jharkhand, Bihar, and Odisha. It offers excellent connectivity to the rest of India in terms of railways, roadways, ports, and airports.
As of April 2021, West Bengal had a total installed power generation capacity of 11,036.88 MW, of which 6,497.95 MW was under state utilities, 2,883.31 MW (private sector) and 1,655.62 MW (central utilities).