Nagaland History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts
Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Nagaland, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Nagaland have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.
Nagaland is the 16th state located in the north eastern part of the country. Nagaland is one of the smallest states in India. Its total area is 16,578 sq km. is. The state capital is Kohima and is also known as 'Switzerland of the East'. The state is bordered by Myanmar in the east, Arunachal Pradesh in the north, Assam in the west and Manipur in the south.
The history of Nagaland is similar to that of Burma and Assam, but according to some opinions, the name of this state was given by the British according to the Naga (in Hindi nude). Nagaland was ruled by the British until the year 1890 and the traditional practice of handhunting was outlawed. Since independence, the Naga region remained divided between Assam and the North East Frontier Agency. After some violent incidents in 1957, the government established a Naga administrative unit under Indian rule. Then in the year 1955, a contingent of the Indian Army was sent to Nagaland by the Government of India.
In the year 1957, the merger negotiations started between the Government of India and the Naga people, under which the Government of India approved to make Nagaland a self-governing state. Nagaland officially became the 16th state of the country on 01 December 1963.
Situated in the north-eastern part of India, Nagaland shares its international border with Myanmar. Nagaland is situated between 93 ° 20 'E and 95 ° 15' E longitude and latitude 25 ° 6 'and 27 ° 4' E. The highest peak in Nagaland is Mount Saramati, which is 12,600 feet above sea level. The main rivers of Nagaland are: Dhansiri, Doyang, Dikhu and Jhanjhi. The areas of the state are hilly, densely wooded and cut by deep river valleys. There are also many species of plants and animals. The state bird of Nagaland is 'Blyths trogopan'. The state animal of Nagaland is 'serow'. The state tree of Nagaland is 'Elder'. The state flower of Nagaland is 'Buransh'.
The climate of the state is monsoon and generally very humid. The annual average rainfall here is 1800 to 2500 mm. The average temperature keeps decreasing with the increase in temperature, 21 ° C on summer days. 40 ° C Up to 4 ° C, while in winter it goes below 4 ° C, but is generally frost in higher elevations.
The Chief Minister of Nagaland is the head of the state of Nagaland. Nagaland has 60 assembly seats. There are seven administrative districts of the local government, including Mokokchung, Tuensang, Mon, Wokha, Junheboto, Phek and Kohima.
The current Chief Minister of Nagaland is Nipihu Rio. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 8 March 2018. The first person to become the Chief Minister of Nagaland was P. Shilu Ao of the Naga Nationalist Organization. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 01 December 1963.
The present Governor of Nagaland, R. N. Ravi is R. N. Ravi is sworn in as the Governor of Nagaland on 17 September 2021.
Nagaland being primarily an agrarian economy, the state provides excellent policy and fiscal incentives for agro-based and forest-based industries, horticulture, food processing, mining, tourism and handloom and handicrafts sectors. Industrial centers and Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are being developed to increase the marketability of the products.
Agriculture is the main means of livelihood of the people of the state. About 90% of the people here are engaged in agricultural business. The main crops here are rice, maize, pulses, oilseeds, fibrous crops, sugarcane, potatoes and tobacco. The major means of income of Nagaland are forests, which cover 17 percent of the state. Until the early 1970s, the state included only cottage industries such as weaving, woodworking, basketry and pottery.
Nagaland's literacy rate is 80.11% according to the 2011 census. Children under 14 years of age have the right to free education in the state. Most of the schools here are affiliated to the Nagaland Board of Secondary Education and some schools are affiliated to the CBSE Board.
Many types of mineral substances such as: chromium, nickel, cobalt, iron ore and limestone are found in the state.
The main industrial center of Nagaland is Dimapur. There are sugar mills, liquor factories, bricks factories and television factories here. Other industries in the state include a khandasari mill, rice mill, canned fruit plant, paper and pulp factory, a plywood factory and furniture making factory. Currently there are only three industrial areas.
Population of Nagaland According to the 2001 census, the population of this state is 19,88,636. The state has 931 females to males and the population density is 119. The majority of the state's population lives in rural areas. People living in Nagaland are called 'Nagas'.
In Nagaland, the clothes of men and women of different Naga tribes are also different. Mekhla which is a shawl-like garment which people wear by wrapping it around the waist. Apart from this, people also wear shawls woven from the loom here. Shawls are their main dress and their designs can be traced back to the Naga tribes. Apart from shawls, their other traditional clothing is often adorned with cowries. The cultural atmosphere of Nagaland is colored by the different colors of different tribes.
The Nagas living in Nagaland are said to belong to the Indo-Mangola dynasty. This is the breed whose presence is first mentioned ten centuries before Christ. The Nagas have more than 20 tribes and several subcastes due to their unique geographical distribution. Although there are many cultural traits among them, they lack a lot of isolation and mutual harmony among themselves. The largest tribe is Konyak followed by Aao, Tangkhul, Semas and Angamis. Naga people are very beautiful and friendly.
In Nagaland, the dress of men and women of different Naga tribes is also different. Mekhala which is a shawlumna which is worn by the people wrapped in the waist. Apart from this, people also wear shawls woven from the loom here. The shawls are their major attire and their designs can be traced to the Naga tribes. Apart from shawls, their other traditional clothes are often adorned with clamshells. The cultural atmosphere of Nagaland is colored with different colors of different tribes.
The official language of the state is English. There are about 36 different languages and dialects that are spoken by the Naga people. Apart from Nagami, there are many languages that the people of the state speak. Other languages of the state include Nagamis, Creole, Angami, Ao, Chang, Konyak, Lotha, Sangmat, Sema and Assamese.
The catering of Nagaland is completely different from other states of India. The Naga people here are mostly non-vegetarians. People here are fond of meat of meat, dog meat, buffalo meat, pork, mutton, chicken, fish snake etc. Dog meat is very popular here.
Every year in the first week of December, a 'Hornbill' festival is organized, in which all the tribes of Nagaland come together to celebrate the festival and display their traditional goods, food items and crafts. The main festivals of this state include Moatsu, Sekrenyi, Nakanayulem, Sukruniye, Bushu, Tsokum, Mikunt, Olangmonyu, Changgadi, Tokhuemong, Monue Emche, Nagada, Tulani, Mogmong, Metamanyu, Helibabai etc.
Many types of tribes are found in Nagaland, mainly including Angami, Aao, Chakhesang, Chang, Dimasa Kachari, Khimanyangan, Konyak, Lotha, Foam, Pochuri, Rengma, Sangatam, Sumi, Inchunger, Kuki and Zeliang etc.
There are many famous tourist places in this state. Tourist destinations include. It is visited by about 16,000 tourists every year. The main tourist places of Nagaland are the World War II graveyard, the State Museum, the zoo of Kohima and Dimapur, the old capital of the Kachari rulers, Japfun Peak, Zoological Park Kohima, Catholic Church, Dimapur, Kiffire, Kohima, Longleng, Mokokchung, Mon, Parren , Phek, Tuensang, Wokha, Xunheboto.
Nagaland has a total of 11 districts, Dimapur is the largest district of the state based on population with a population of 378811. The largest district by area is Tuensang. Tuensang has an area of 4228 sq km.
Nagaland has the following 11 districts: - Kaifair, Kohima, Xunheboto, Dimapur, Twensang, Peren, Phek, Mokokchuang, Mon, Longleng and Wokha.
Total exports from the state stood at US$ 5.71 million in 2019-20 and US$ 6.06 million in 2020-21. There itself in 2020-21, total exports of electric machinery from Nagaland stood at US$ 1.48 million (~24.4%).
Major items exported from Nagaland are ceramic and allied products, electric machinery & equipment, electronics component, human hair, product thereto, electronics instrument and cotton fabrics & made-ups.
Nagaland promotes bamboo processing as an enterprise, covering various applications such as food-based, medicinal usage, handicraft, art, tiles and flooring.
Nagaland Bamboo Development Agency (NBDA) is the nodal office that coordinates with other offices for all bamboo-related research, development and business applications.
In FY21, the annual allocation for implementing the ‘National Bamboo Mission’ in Nagaland stood at Rs. 60 million (US$ 820 thousand).