Jharkhand History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts
Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Jharkhand, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Jharkhand have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.
Jharkhand is the 28th state of the country located in the eastern part of India. The state capital is Ranchi. The largest city of Jharkhand is Jamshedpur. The deputy capital of the state is Dumka. It borders Bihar in the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh in the west, Odisha in the south and West Bengal in the east. This state is considered a leading state in the proportion of forests throughout the country and is famous for the conservation of wildlife.
This region was known as 'Kukara' during the Mughal period. After 1756, the British came to rule here and this land was named as Jharkhand. The tribal revolt of 1832 had a great impact on the British administration in Jharkhand. The longest and last tribal revolt under Birsa Munda took place in 1895 and lasted till 1900. Around 1939, former Indian hockey player Jaipal Singh first proposed the idea of merging the southern districts of Bihar with the state of Jharkhand. On 28 August 2000, the 28th state of the country, Jharkhand was created by partitioning South Bihar.
The total area of this state is 79,714 sq km. , Which is 2.4% of the total area of the country. It has 152 cities and 32,615 villages. The length of this state (north to south) is 380 km. And width (east to west) 463 km. is. Much of the state is part of the Chotanagpur plateau, which is also the origin of the Koyal, Damodar, Brahmani, Khadkai, and Swarnarekha rivers, whose waters are mostly in Jharkhand. Most of the state is forested, where elephants and tigers are found only in very small quantities. The soil of Jharkhand is a mixture of stone and broken rocks. Different types of soil are found in different places in the state. The state tree of Jharkhand is 'Sal'. The official bird of Jharkhand is 'Asian Cuckoo'. The official flower of Jharkhand is 'Palash'. Elephant is the official animal of Jharkhand.
The state is located in a tropical region. The climate of Jharkhand is generally tropical but due to its high plateau, the climatic conditions here are different from the surrounding. This region is exposed to the fluctuations of each season under the monsoon climate. Adequate humidity is found in the climate of Jharkhand, due to which it becomes somewhat different from the tropical climate.
The major political parties of Jharkhand are Bharatiya Janata Party, Indian National Congress and Communist Party of India. Jharkhand Mukti Morcha is the major political party of the state. The head of state is the governor, who is elected by the president, but the real executive powers are concentrated in the hands of the chief minister who also constitutes a cabinet to assist him. The administrative head of the state is the chief secretary of the state.
The current Chief Minister of Jharkhand is Bhupendra Bhai Patel. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 29 December 2019. Babulal Marandi was the first person to become the Chief Minister of Jharkhand. He was sworn in as the first Chief Minister of the state on 15 November 2000.
The current governor of Jharkhand is Ramesh Bais. Ramesh Bais was sworn in as the Governor of Jharkhand on 07 july 2021.
The economy of Jharkhand depends on mineral resources, industries, agriculture and tourism sectors. The state's GDP in 2004 was US$14 billion. The economy of the state of Jharkhand gets this revenue from the mineral resource sector, as the state has a rich reserves of minerals.
The economy of Jharkhand is mainly based on mineral and forest wealth. Jharkhand is the second largest mineral wealth producer in India after Chhattisgarh. Jharkhand is also called the 'Roor' of India due to the abundant mineral availability. The state contains minerals in the form of iron ore, copper, coal, uranium, bauxite, mica, limestone and graphite. Of the 79,714 sq km area of the state of Jharkhand, there are forests in 18,423 sq km area. There are many famous industrial cities in the state such as Bokaro Steel City, Ranchi, Ramgarh and Dhanbad. India's first and fifth largest steel factory in the world, Tata Steel is located in Jamshedpur. Bokaro has Asia's largest steel plant.
The literacy rate of Jharkhand according to the 2011 census is 67.63%. The male literacy rate in the state is 78.45% and the female literacy rate is 56.21%. After the formation of Jharkhand, the Jharkhand Education Project Council took up four projects – DPEP, SSA, NPEGEL and KGBV for the spread of primary level education.
Jharkhand has mineral resources like coal (27.3% of India's reserves), iron ore (26% of India's reserves), copper ore (18.5% of India's reserves), uranium, mica, bauxite, granite, limestone, silver, graphite rich in.
According to the 2011 census, Jharkhand has a population of 32.96 million. It has 16.93 million males and 16.03 million females. The tribes comprise 28% of the total population and 12% belong to the scheduled castes. About 68.5% of the people in the state are Hindu, 13.8% Muslim, 13% Zoroastrianism and 4.1% Christianity. The remaining population is of Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs.
Panchi and Parhan is the traditional dress of the women of Jharkhand. The lower garment is panchi and the upper one, the parahan. Jharkhand popularly known as Vanchal (Land of the Forest) is cultured with a dynamic heritage of textiles and clothing.
Each sub-caste and tribe group in Jharkhand has a unique tradition. Most tribal villages have a choreography. Paika, Chhau, Jadur, Karama, Nachni, Natua, Agni, Chokra, Santhal, Jamda, Ghatwari, Mahta, Sohari, Lurisari are folk dances here. Each village has its own sacred tree (sarna), where worship is offered by the village priest. Apart from this, there is also a dormitory of the unmarried. The weekly haats play an important role in the tribal economy. Here thin, strong bamboo-made practical articles such as door panels, boxes, spoons, hunting and fishing equipment, boat-shaped baskets and bowls and baskets are made, and pink pink leaf powder is used on religious occasions. Bowls and 'leaf plates' made from 'Sal' leaves are widely used during weddings and other festivities.
The official language of the state is Hindi. People here speak many languages. Apart from Hindi, Munda, Indo-Aryan and Dravidian languages are also spoken in the state. Santhali, Bhoomji, Ho, Mundri and Kharia are under Munda language. Bengali, Sadri, Maithali, Panchpargania, Oriya, Khortha, Pagpuri and Kurmali are under Indo-Aryan language. Paharia, Korva and Oraon are under the Dravidian language.
Like every Indian state, Jharkhand's food and drink also has its own characteristics. The main dishes of the state are Dhuska, Sattu (made from Thekua flour and wheat flour), Thekua and Tilkut are very popular.
Jharkhand is a tribal dominated state. Therefore, the color and smell of primitive life is scattered in all the festivals here. The largest tribal festival is Sarhul, which is mainly a spring festival celebrated in the months of March-April. During Makar Sankranti, people also celebrate Tusu Mela or Pausha Mela, which is actually a harvest festival. Other festivals of this region include Tusu, Bandana, Karama, Marge.
Due to the excessive forest, many tribal communities reside in Jharkhand such as: Asura, Binjhiya, Gond, Ho, Kharia, Kharwar, Banjara, Bathundi, Mal Pahadia, Chick Barrack, Korba, Birhor, Mahli, Khond, Soria Pahadia, Kisan , Morwa, Munda, Oran, Santhal, Savar, Chabar, Pahariya, Birjia, Hill Kharia etc.
There are many famous tourist places in this state. The state is full of forests, mountains. Apart from this there are many wildlife sanctuaries, temples, museums etc. which attract tourists from all over the country. The main tourist places of Jharkhand are Devghar Legit Nath Temple, Hundru Falls, Dalma Sanctuary, Betla National Park, Shree Samad Shikharji Jain Shrine (Parasnath), Patratu Dam, Gautam Dhara, Chinmastike Temple, Panchghah Falls, Dasam Falls, Hazaribagh National Sanctuary, Ranchi Falls. , Dasam Fall, Sun Temple, Jamshedpur, Netarhat etc.
There are total 24 districts in the state which are as follows: - Koderma, Khunti, Garhwa, Giridih, Gumla, Godda, Chatra, Jamtara, Dumka, Deoghar, Dhanbad, Palamu, West Singhbhum, Pakur, East Singhbhum, Bokaro, Ranchi, Ramgarh, Latehar, Lohardaga, Saraikela Kharsawan, Sahibganj, Simdega, Hazari