Tamil Nadu History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts

Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Tamil Nadu, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Tamil Nadu have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.

Tamil Nadu Quick General Knowledge

State NameTamil Nadu (तमिल नाडु)
State LevelState
CapitalChennai
Statehood26 January 1950
Largest CityChennai
Total Area1,30,058 sq km
Districts38
Current Chief MinisterMuthuvel Karunanidhi Stal
Current GovernorRavindra Narayan Ravi
State BirdCommon emerald dove
State FlowerFlame lily
State AnimalNilgiri tahr
State TreeAsian palmyra palm
LanguagesTamil
State DanceBharatanatyam, Kumi, Kolattam, Kavadi.

Tamil Nadu (तमिल नाडु)

Tamil Nadu is a state located in the southern part of India. The state capital is Chennai. In ancient times, Chennai was known as Madras. Chennai is the fourth largest city in India. The total area of ​​Chennai is 175 square kilometers. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala are located in the neighborhood of the state. On the south side of the state are the Indian Ocean and on the east side are the Bay of Bengal. The total area of ​​the state is 1,30,058 square kilometers. The main language spoken in the state is Tamil.

The history of Tamil Nadu is very ancient, it is about 6,000 years old. Historians divide the history of Tamil Nadu into three special parts - ancient, middle and modern. Many dynasties have ruled this state ranging from the Cholas, the Pallavas and the Pandavas.

This province was part of the Madras Presidency during the British rule. After independence, the Madras Presidency was divided into various parts, which led to the creation of Madras and other states. Madras province was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968.


The state is surrounded by land due to being surrounded by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh in the northern part of the state and Kerala in the western part. Apart from this, Puducherry is also located in the northeast of the state. The major rivers here include Kaveri, Ponnaiyar, Palar, Vaigai and Tambraparni. The western, southern and northeastern parts of the state are hilly terrain. Tamil Nadu is the only state in the country within whose range the Eastern and Western Ghats are connected in the Nilgiris. The beautiful coastline, hundreds of coconut trees, majestic temples, cultural heritage and wild sanctuaries make Tamil Nadu the favorite destination of tourists.

The palm tree is the palm tree of Tamil Nadu. The official flower of Tamil Nadu is 'curry green'. The state bird of Tamil Nadu is 'Panna Kapot'. The state animal of Tamil Nadu is 'Nilgiri Tahr'.


The weather in Tamil Nadu varies from dry to moist and semi-arid. There are three rainy times in Tamil Nadu. Strong southwesterly winds with southwest monsoon from June to September, northeast monsoon from October to December with northeast winds and dry season from January to May. Average annual rainfall in the state is 945 mm. it occurs.

Tamil Nadu has 234 assembly constituencies and 40 Lok Sabha constituencies. Due to the influence of national parties like Congress and BJP, political power is centralized in the central government.

The current Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu is Edapady Palaniswami. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 16 February 2017. The first person to become the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, P.S. Kumaraswamy was the king. He was sworn in as the first Chief Minister of the state on 26 January 1950.

The present Governor of Tamil Nadu is Banwari Lal Purohit. Banwari Lal Purohit was sworn in as the Governor of Tamil Nadu on 06 October 2017.


Tamil Nadu is the second wealthiest state in India by GDP and the most industrialized state in India. The state is urbanized over 60%, accounting for about 10.6% of the urban population in the country, while comprising only 6% of India's total population. Services account for 55% of the economic activity in the state, followed by manufacturing at 34% and agriculture at 11%. The government is the major investor in the state, accounting for 52% of the total investment, followed by private Indian investors at 29.9% and foreign private investors at 14.9%. It is ranked as the most economically free state in India by the Economic Freedom Ranking for States of India.

The main occupation in Tamil Nadu is agriculture. The main food crops here are rice, jowar and pulses. The major trade crops are sugarcane, cotton, sunflower, coconut, cashew, chilli, gingelly and peanuts. Other plant crops are tea, coffee, cardamom and rubber. The Cauvery river basin located here is called the "rice bowl of South India". Rice production of Tamil Nadu is the fifth highest in the country. Tamil Nadu is the largest producer of bananas and flowers, the second largest producer of mango, rubber, groundnut, coconut and the third largest producer of coffee. The main forest products are - Timber, Sandalwood, Pulpwood and Sustainable wood are the major place in Tamil Nadu in the production and use of bio-fertilizers.

Tamil Nadu is India's largest industrial state after Maharashtra. It is the only state in India where electricity generation is surplus due to reservation of power and energy. It is also the most urbanized state in India where 47% of the population lives in urban areas. After Tamil Nadu, Karnataka is the largest information technology (IT) development area in the country, especially Chennai, which is the largest IT city in the country and the largest IT park in the country after Karnataka capital Bangalore.


According to the 2011 census Tamil Nadu has a literacy rate of 80.3%, which is higher than the national average. The rate was 73.5% in the 2001 census. GER is 100 percent in its primary or upper primary education. Tamil Nadu has 40 universities for higher education, including both government and private. Apart from this, there are 480 engineering colleges, 5,000 medical colleges, 1100 art colleges in the state.

Granite, lignite, limestone, bauxite, gypsum, lignite, magnesite and iron ore are the major mineral resources of the state. The state is a major exporter of finished skins and leather goods, cotton yarn, tea, coffee, spices, engineering goods, tobacco, handicrafts and black granite stones.

Cotton ginning, spinning and weaving have always been major industries in the state. Other industries in Tamil Nadu include: cotton clothing, heavy commercial vehicles, auto parts, railway coaches, electrically pumped, leather industry, cement, sugar, paper, automobiles and matches.


The population of Tamil Nadu is 7,21,47,030 according to the 2011 census, which is the seventh highest in the country and is 5.96% of the total population of the country. Hindus are more prevalent in Tamil society and most of them are staunch Brahmins who have their own religious and social beliefs. There are also some Buddhists, Sikhs and people of other religions who are part of Tamil society. The state also has people belonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes who consider themselves Hindus. However, according to the census they are not included in the Hindu population.
Saree has great importance in the traditional clothing of women in Tamil Nadu. The popular Tamil poem Silappathikaram portrays women in a sari. Saree is one such outfit which women wear in offices, temples, parties and weddings. South Indian sarees are famous all over India for their intricate zari work.
The Tamil civilization is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. The Tamil people have a great interest in music, dance and literature. Carnatic music is the mainstream music genre here. Bharatanatyam is quite popular and famous. The cultural specialty of Tamil Nadu is the frescoes, Bharatanatyam, temple-building and other architectural arts of Thanjavur. Tirukkural of the saint poet Thiruvalluvar is the most well-known text of ancient Tamil.
Tamil is the official and most spoken language here. It is the first language to be recognized as a classical language in the country. However, people living here also speak some other South Indian languages including Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam.
Like every state in the country, the food here has its own specialty. Rice is the staple food of Tamil Nadu, popular with rice and rice dishes such as dosa, uthappam, idli, etc., which are served on banana leaves. Chilli-spices are used a lot in the food here, which makes the food taste delicious and tasteful.
Among the popular festivals of Tamil Nadu, Navratri, Dussehra, Deepavali, Karthika, Adiparukku, Mamallapuram Pongal and some parts of South Tamil Nadu, 'Jallikattu' (Tamil Nadu style sando ladai) is the most popular festival.
According to the Tamil Nadu Forest Department website, 6 tribal communities, Toda, Kota, Kurumbas, Irulur, Paniyaan and Kattanayakan, have been identified as primitive tribal communities. Interestingly, all the six tribes are native to the Nilgiris.
Tamil Nadu is a favorite destination for tourists due to the abundance of natural beauty. Famous tourist places of this state: Mamallapuram, Poompuhar, Kanchipuram, Kumbakonam, Dharasuram, Chidambaram, Tiahnamalai, Srirangam, Madurai, Rameswaram, Tirunelveli, Kanyakumari, Thanjavur, Velankanni, Nagur Chittan Vasal, Kalugumalay, Hogalam, Memorial Center) Papanasham, Suruli (waterfall), Ooty (Uttakamandalam), Kodaikanal, Yerkad, Ialagiri Kollilhills (hill station), Guindy (Chennai), Mudumalai, Annamalai, Mundanthurai, Vellore, Madurantak, Kalakad (Wildlife Sanctuary), Wayanandalayam Kalimier (Bird Sanctuary) and Arinagar Anna Zoo near Chennai are important places for tourism. Marina beach in Chennai is also the second longest beach in the world.
There are total 32 districts in the state as follows: - Ariyalur, Erode, Kanyakumari, Karur, Kanchipuram, Cuddalore, Krishnagiri, Coimbatore, Chennai, Dindigul, Thanjavur, Tiruchirappalli, Tirunelveli, Tirupur, Tiruvannamalai, Tiruvarur, Thoothukudi, Thoothukudi. , Dharmapuri, Namakkal, Nagapattinam, Nilgiri, Pudukkottai, Perambalur, Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Virudhunagar, Villupuram, Vellore, Sivaganga and Salem.

Tamil Nadu FAQs:

𝒜. Tamil Nadu state got statehood on 26 January 1950.

𝒜. The capital of Tamil Nadu state is Chennai.

𝒜. The folkdances of Tamil Nadu state are: Bharatanatyam, Kumi, Kolattam, Kavadi.

𝒜. The state bird name is Common emerald dove and the state animal name is Nilgiri tahr of Tamil Nadu state.

𝒜. The current chief minster is Muthuvel Karunanidhi Stal and the governor is Ravindra Narayan Ravi of Tamil Nadu state.

𝒜. The name of state flower is Flame lily and the state tree is Asian palmyra palm of Tamil Nadu state.

  Last update :  2022-06-28 11:44:49
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