Bihar History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts
Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Bihar, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Bihar have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.
Quick General Knowledge
26 January 1950
94,163 km किमी
Current Chief Minister
Jata-Jatin, Bakho-Bakhain, Panwariya, Sama-Chakwa, Bidesia and Jatra .
Bihar is a state located in the eastern part of India. Patna is the capital city of Bihar and the largest city in the state. The ancient name of Patna was Pataliputra. The state is surrounded by Nepal in the northern part, West Bengal in the eastern part and Uttar Pradesh in the western part, Jharkhand in the southern part. Bihar is the 12th largest in the country by area and the third most populous state by population.
Bihar has been a stronghold of vast empires in ancient times. Bihar was earlier known as Magadha. In ancient times the region was ruled by some great dynasties like Bimbisara, Udayan, Chandragupta Maurya, Emperor Ashoka Maurya, Sunga dynasty and Kanva dynasty, followed by Kushan rulers and later Chandragupta Vikramaditya of Gupt dynasty. In the medieval period, the Muslim rulers ruled this area.
In the modern period, Babu Kunwar Singh of Bihar played an important role in the first freedom struggle of 1857. Bengal was partitioned in 1912 and consequently the state of Bihar came into existence. In the year 1936, Orissa was divided from Bihar. After independence, Bihar got another division and in 2000, the state of Jharkhand was separated from it.
The total area of Bihar is 94,163 square kilometers. Many rivers flow here, of which the Ganges is prominent. Other rivers of the state include Sone, Pupun, Phalgu, Karmanasha, Durgavati, Kosi, Gandak, Ghaghra etc. Bihar is situated in the plain of the Ganges and its tributaries. The river Ganges flows almost through the middle of the state. North Bihar is the flat plain of Bagmati, Kosi, Gandak, Son and their tributaries. To the north of Bihar is the Himalayan mountain range and to the south is the Chota Nagpur Plateau, part of which is now Jharkhand. The forest area of Bihar is also huge which is about 6,764 sq km. The state bird of Bihar is the 'Indian Roller'. The state flower of Bihar is 'Kachnar'. The state tree of Bihar is 'Peepal'. The state animal of Arunachal Pradesh is 'bull'.
There are mainly three seasons in Bihar: - 1. Summer season: March to Main June. 2. Rainy season: June to October. 3. Winter season: November to February. The average summer temperature of Bihar is 35–45 ° C and in winter it is 5–15 ° C. The average annual rainfall in the state ranges between 1,016 mm in the west-central and 1,524 mm in the far north.
The state of Bihar comes under a bicameral system in the federal structure of the Indian Republic. The constitutional head of the state is the Governor but the real power rests with the Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers.
Among the major political parties in Bihar, the NDA which includes the BJP, the Janata Dal, the Indian National Congress and the Rashtriya Janata Dal-led coalition.
The current Chief Minister of Bihar is Nitish Kumar. He has been working as the Chief Minister of the state since 2007. Shrikrishna Singh was the first person to become the Chief Minister of Bihar. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 02 April 1946.
The current Governor of Bihar is Fagu Chauhan. Satyapal Malik is sworn in as the Governor of Bihar on 29 July 2019.
Bihar's per capita income in 2007-08 was Rs 11,615. However, it increased to 42.07 percent in 2011-12. With the formation of Jharkhand, its troubles have increased and Bihar has been deprived of huge reserves of mineral wealth. About 6,764.14 sq km of the state M Forests are spread in the area.
Agriculture has a significant contribution in Bihar's economy. About 75% of the state's population is engaged in agriculture related work. The land in the north is generally fertile and cultivable everywhere. The major food crops of Bihar are wheat, paddy, vegetables, maize and pulses. The main cash crops of Bihar are sugarcane, potato, banana, mango, litchi, tobacco, oilseeds, onion, chilli and jute. Banana of Hajipur and Litchi of Muzaffarpur are very famous.
Bihar's education rate nearly tripled in the second half of the 20th century to reach about 48% of the state's population, yet it remains well below the education rate of other states in the country. Male literacy rate (60.32%) is almost double as compared to female literacy rate (33.57%). Bihar's 'out of school' rate was 12.8% in 2006, fell to 6.3% in 2007, which is not very impressive. Most of the schools in the state come under the Bihar School Examination Board. At one time Bihar was counted among the most important centers of education. Nalanda University, Vikramshila University and Odantapuri University were the glorious learning centers of ancient Bihar.
According to an official source, there are 13 identified mines in Bihar - all with rich reserves of minerals, and metals in various districts including a mica reserve at Nawada, a limestone reserve at Kaimur, and others.
According to the 2011 census, the population of the state is 104,099,452 crore. The state has a population of 54,278,157 males and 49,821,295 females.
The traditional dress of Bihari people consists of dhoti-kurta for men and sari for women. The influence of western culture has also influenced the lives of the people of Bihar as western shirts and trousers are becoming popular among both rural and urban male population and salwar kameez for women in urban Bihar.
The culture of Bihar is a legacy of a great historical past. Bihar has a mixture of Magadha, Anga, Mithila and Vajji cultures. There is not much difference in the culture of cities and rural people. Even in cities, people follow traditional customs and their beliefs are orthodox. The society here is male dominated. Casteism has been an integral part of Bihar's politics and common life. This discrimination has been reduced to a great extent at present.
Several types of folk songs and dances have also been performed on special occasions in the state. 'Sohar' is sung at the time of childbirth, 'Sumangali' is sung at the wedding, 'Katnigit' is sung while sowing the first paddy and 'Ropnigit' is sung during harvest. Some of the famous folk dance styles of Bihar are Gond Nach, Dhobi Nach, Jhumar Nach, Jitiya Nach etc.
Hindi is the main language of Bihar. Many other languages are spoken in the state including Urdu, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Magahi, Bajjika and Angika. Bhojpuri is very popular language of Bihar, it is the third most spoken language in India. Magahi language was the official language of the Maurya Empire and Lord Buddha also spoke it. Magahi is written in Devanagari script.
The people of each state of the country have their own separate catering. Bihar is famous for its variety of food. Both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes are preferred here. Apart from various varieties of sweets, local people like Anarsa's Goli, Khaja, Motichur ka laddu, Tilkut, Sattu, Chuda-Dahi and Litti-Chokha are very much liked by the people here. Chuda-curd or puri-jalebi are eaten with great fervor in the morning breakfast in the state. Rice-dal-sabzi during the day and roti-sabzi at night are common meals.
The most important festival in Bihar is Chhath Puja. Apart from this, festivals like Holi, Deepawali, Dussehra, Mahashivratri, Nagpanchami, Sri Panchami, Muharram, Eid and Christmas are also celebrated with pomp.
30 tribes have been notified as Scheduled Tribes in Bihar. Most STs are Santhal, Oraon, Munda, Ho, Kharwar, Kharia and Bhumij who constitute about 86% of the total tribal population of the state.
Bihar has been the center of tourist places, historical heritage, religion, spirituality and culture since ancient times. The traditions, culture, customs and way of life have always attracted tourists here. Around 3,000 years old ancient monuments still exist in Bihar and tourists from all over the world come here to see them every year. The Mahabodhi Temple located in the state has been declared a heritage site by UNESCO.
The main tourist places of Bihar include Rajgir, Nalanda, Vaishali, Pavpuri, Bodh Gaya, Vikramshila remains of Buddhist University of Higher Education, Patna, Sheetla Mata Temple, ISKCON Temple, Navalakha Temple, Surya Mandir, Pastor's Haveli, Sher Shah's Mosque, Begu Hajjam Key Mosque, Madhubani, Mundeshwari Temple, Kaimur, Rohtasgarh Fort, Rohtas, Jain pilgrimage sites, Kundalpur, Nalanda, Bihar Yoga Center, Munger, Maner Sharif, Kesariya and East Champaran.
Bihar has a total of 38 districts. The largest district by population is Patna and the smallest district is Sheikhpura, while the largest district by area is West Champaran and the smallest district is Shivhar.
The following 38 districts of the state are: - Araria, Araval, Aurangabad, Katihar, Kishanganj, Kaimur, Khagaria, Gaya, Gopalganj, Jamui, Jehanabad, Darbhanga, Nawada, Nalanda, Patna, West Champaran, Purnia, East Champaran, Buxar, Banka, Begusarai, Bhagalpur, Bhojpur, Madhubani, Madhepura, Munger, Muzaffarpur, Rohtas, Lakhisarai, Vaishali, Shivhar, Sheikhpura, Samastipur, Saran, Saharsa, Siwan, Sitamarhi, and Supaul.