Maharashtra History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts
Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Maharashtra, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Maharashtra have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.
Quick General Knowledge
1 May 1960
3,07,713 sq km
Current Chief Minister
Yellow-footed green pigeo
Pride of India
Indian giant squirrel
Lavani, Nakata, Koli, Lezim, Gafa, Dahikala Dasavtar or Bohada, Tamasha, Mauni, Powara and Gouricha.
Maharashtra is a state located in the south central of the country. The capital of Maharashtra and the largest city in the state is Mumbai. Mumbai is also known as the economic capital of India. The state is bordered by the Arabian Sea in the west, Gujarat in the northwest, Madhya Pradesh in the north, Karnataka in the south and Chhattisgarh and Telangana in the east. The total area of Maharashtra is 3,07,713 sq km. is. Pune city of Maharashtra is the sixth largest city in the country.
The history of the state is very rich and many dynasties ruled here in ancient times. The first famous ruler of Maharashtra was the Satavahanas (230 to 225 AD), who were the founders of the state of Maharashtra. Based on the facts present in the historical Puranas, it can be said that the state existed since the third century and it was the center of industry, commercial transactions and trade. In the beginning, there was the rule of 'Vakatakas' who were very great fighters. He changed the name of the state to 'Dandakaranya', which meant the king who ruled the jungle. He was later defeated by the Yadavas who ruled here for a few years.
In 1296, Alauddin Khilji established his empire by defeating the Yadavas, he was the first Muslim ruler to spread his legacy to Madurai in the south. After Alauddin Khilji, Maharashtra established its empire by the other Muslim rulers Mohammad bin Tughlaq and the Bahmani Sultans of Bijapur. Then in 1680 Marathas came under the leadership of Shivaji and fought against the Mughals and became the king of Maharashtra. Later the Peshwa dynasty established their suzerainty over Maharashtra, they fought for many years with the British and eventually suffered defeat. The state of Maharashtra was officially established by the Government of India by uniting the divisions of Konkan, Marathwada, Western Maharashtra, South Maharashtra, North Maharashtra (Khandesh) and Vidarbha under the Bombay Reorganization Act on 01 May 1960.
The state is located in the northern part of the country and geographically the state is predominantly plateau. The highest peak here is the Kalsubai of the Western Ghats and the coastal plains of Konkan in the west. To the east lies the Deccan Plateau. The northern part of the state consists of the Satpura hills, while the Ajanta and Satmala hills pass through the central part of the state. The state flower of Maharashtra is 'Jarul'. The state bird of Maharashtra is 'Hariyal'. The state tree of Maharashtra is 'mango'. The state animal of Maharashtra is the 'giant squirrel'. The major rivers of Maharashtra are Godavari, Krishna and Tapi.
The climate of Maharashtra is tropical monsoon and the average annual rainfall in the state is about 400 mm. From 6000 mm. Varies between The Konkan region of the state receives the highest rainfall. The average temperature of the year is between 25 and 27 degrees. Average temperature 43 ° C during summer in the intermediate and eastern parts of Maharashtra. And around 20 ° C in winter. it happens.
Like other states, the government of Maharashtra is made up of executive, legislative and judiciary. The executive branch of the state is headed by the governor. The head of the state, like other states, is the governor. Maharashtra has 288 Vidhan Sabha members with six administrative districts and five main constituencies. 40 members are sent from the state to the Parliament of India: 48 are elected to the Lok Sabha (lower house) and 19 to the Rajya Sabha (upper house).
The major political parties of the state are Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Indian National Congress, Shiv Sena and Maharashtra Navnirman Sena.
The current Chief Minister of Maharashtra is Uddhav Thackeray. Uddhav Thackeray was sworn in on 28 November 2019. The first person to become the Chief Minister of Maharashtra was Yashwantrao Chavan of the Indian National Congress. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 01 May 1960.
The current Governor of Maharashtra is Bhagat Singh Koshyari. Bhagat Singh Koshyari has been sworn in as the Governor of Maharashtra on 31 August 2019. Prior to this, he was the second successful Chief Minister of Uttarakhand State and the top Leader of the Opposition in the Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly from 2002 to 2007.
Maharashtra is the richest state in India due to its highest gross domestic product (GDP) in the country. Maharashtra is the financial capital of India, so it houses the headquarters (head office) of major banks, top insurance companies, financial institutions and well-known mutual funds. The Bombay Stock Exchange, the largest stock exchange in the country, is also located in Maharashtra. The state is also the hub of the Indian film and television industry, from which Maharashtra receives a revenue of crores of rupees each year from India and around the world.
Agriculture is the mainstay of the state's economy. About 65% of the people of the state depend on agriculture and allied activities. The major crops are paddy, jowar, millet, wheat, tur (arhar), urad, gram and pulses. Maharashtra is the major producer of oilseeds and peanuts, sunflowers, soybeans are the major oilseed crops here. Important cash crops of the state include cotton, sugarcane, turmeric and vegetables. Various types of fruits like mango, banana, oranges, grapes etc. are also produced in sufficient quantity in the state.
Maharashtra has made a lot of progress in the field of education. According to the 2001 census, the state has a literacy rate of 77.27%, of which the literacy rate for women is 67.51% and the literacy rate for males is 86.27 percent. There are one central university, 21 deemed universities, 19 state universities. There are around 75,000 primary schools and 20,000 secondary schools in the state which are either affiliated to the state board, CBSE or ICSE. There are around 350 engineering colleges in the state.
Mineral materials of the state include manganese, coal, limestone, iron ore, copper, bauxite and silicified sand. Most of these minerals are found in the districts of Bhandara, Nagpur and Chandrapur.
The major industries of the state include cotton textiles, machinery, chemicals, transportation, electrical and metallurgical etc. Other industries such as sugar, pharmaceuticals, heavy chemicals, petrochemicals, automobiles, food processing, etc. are very flourishing.
According to the 2011 census, Maharashtra has a population of 12,374,333 crores. Males constitute 58,243,056 and females 54,131,277. In 2001, Maharashtra had a population of 96,752,247. India is the second largest state in terms of population. The majority of the population of the state is Marathi Hindus, which constitute 82% of the total population of Maharashtra. Muslims constitute 13% of the population of the second largest religion. Other major religions of the state include Buddhism, Sikh, Jain and Christian etc.
Adivasis constitute a major part of the population of India. In the ancient writings, the tribals have also been called Atvika and Vanvasi. The tribes of Maharashtra are mainly inhabited by Barli, Banjara, Koli, Chitpavan, Gond and Abumfamadia communities.
The people of Maharashtra wear different types of costumes. The women of the state wear a 9 yard sari, which is called Nauvari. Paithani sarees are also very famous here. Men usually wear kurta and kameez with dhoti. Some people wear saffron colored turban or white colored cap on the head, which are called badi and petha. But with the changing times, young Maharashtrians are also increasingly attracted to the latest fashions imported from western countries.
The culture of Maharashtra gives a glimpse of ancient Indian culture, civilization and historical events. The most popular dances of Maharashtra include Dhanagri, Lavani, Povadas, Tamasha and Koli. Of these, Kala and Dindi are considered to be religious folk dances. Maharashtrian Lori Palane is also very famous here. Apart from this, other musical forms like Bharuad, Bhajan, Kirtan and Tumbadi are also popular. Many types of crafts like Kolhapuri chappals and ornaments, Bidriwar, Warli paintings, Paithani sarees etc. are famous all over the world.
People of Maharashtra wear different types of costumes. The women of the state wear a 9-yard sari, which is called Nauvari. The Paithani saree is also very famous here. Men usually wear kurtas and shirts with a dhoti. Some people wear saffron colored turban or white colored cap on the head, which is called Badi and Petha. But with the changing times, young Maharashtrians are also increasingly attracted to the latest fashions imported from western countries.
The official language of Maharashtra is Marathi. Marathi is the most spoken language by the people here. Many regional dialects are also spoken here which include Dangi, Ahirani, Vaidali, Khaneshi, Samadevi, Konkani and Manwani etc.
Like other states, Maharashtra's cuisine has its own distinct taste. Some of the main dishes here are Urban Tadka, Firni and Malpua, Hot Poha, Chocolate Tea, Sago Wada, Bhel Puri, Pani Puri, Dahi Batata Puri, Papadi Chaat and Pav Bhaji etc. are very popular.
The main festival of Maharashtra is Ganesh Chaturthi which is celebrated with great enthusiasm throughout the state. Other festivals in Maharashtra also celebrate Holi, Dussehra, Deepawali, Eid, Gudi Padwa, Narli Purnima, Moharram, Mahashivratri, Vat Purnima and Christmas. Apart from these religious festivals, many more festivals like Ajanta Ellora Festival and Elephanta Festival of Aurangabad are also very popular among the people.
Tribals constitute a major part of India's population. In ancient writings, the tribals have also been called Atvika and Vanvasi. The tribes of Maharashtra are mainly inhabited by the Barli, Banjara, Koli, Chitpavan, Gond and Abumphamadiya communities.
Maharashtra has a lot of historical and religious sites, which attract tourists. Important tourist places of the place include Ajanta, Ellora, Elephanta, Kanheri Caves, Brasskhora and Karla Caves, Mahabaleshwar, Matheran and Panchgani, Jawahar, Malshej Ghat, Amboli, Chikhaldhara and Panhala Hill Stations. Pandharpur, Nashik, Shirdi, Nanded, Oudhanaganath, Trimbakewar, Tuljapur, Ganapatipule, Bhimshankar, Harihareshwar, Shegaon, Kolhapur, Jejuri and Ambjogai etc.
There are a total of 36 districts in the state of Maharashtra, Mumbai is the largest district in the state by population while Pune is the largest district by area.
Maharashtra has the following 36 districts: - Akola, Amravati, Ahmednagar, Osmanabad, Aurangabad, Kolhapur, Gadchiroli, Gondia, Chandrapur, Jalgaon, Jalna, Thane, Dhule, Nandurbar, Nanded, Nagpur, Nashik, Parbhani, Palghar, Pune, Buldhana, Boli, Bhandara, Mumbai Suburban, Mumbai City, Yavatmal, Ratnagiri, Raigad, Latur, Wardha, Washim, Satara, Sangli, Sindhudurg, Solapur and Hingoli.
According to the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), between October 2019 and March 2021, FDI inflow in Maharashtra stood at US$ 23,432.35 million, accounting for ~28% of the total FDI inflow in India.
As of April 2021, the state had a total installed power generation capacity of 44,176.12 MW, of which the private sector was the biggest contributor with a capacity of 22,571.24 MW, followed by 13,660.97 MW from state utilities and 7,943.91 MW from central utilities.
Under the State Budget 2021-22, the government spent 5.2% of its budget on roads and bridges, which is higher than the average allocation by states (4.3%) for roads and bridges (Rs. 22,608 crores or US$ 3.06 billion has been allocated for construction of roads and bridges).
Under the State Budget 2021-22, the government has approved the construction of the Pune-Nashik medium high-speed railway line with a proposed length of 235 km and an estimated cost of Rs. 16,039 crore (US$ 2.18 billion).
The government has also approved the Nashik Metro Neo Project, with a total length of 33 km and an estimated cost of Rs 2,100 crore (US$ 286.03 million). In addition, the Metrolite system in Thane city at an estimated cost of Rs 7,165 crore (US$ 975.92 million) and the Pimpri Chinchwad to Nigdi corridor project at an estimated cost of Rs 946.73 crore (US$ 128.95 million). Work has been started.