Rajasthan History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts

Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Rajasthan, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Rajasthan have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.

Rajasthan Quick General Knowledge

State NameRajasthan (राजस्थान)
State LevelState
CapitalJaipur
Statehood1 November 1956
Largest CityJaipur
Total Area3,42,239 sq km
Districts33
Current Chief MinisterAshok Gehlot
Current GovernorKalraj Mishra
State BirdGreat Indian bustard
State FlowerTecomella
State AnimalCamel and Chinkara
State TreeKhejri
LanguagesHindi, Rajasthani
State DanceGhoomar, Chakri, Gangaur, Jhulan Leela, Jhuma, Suisini, Ghapal, Kalbelia.

Rajasthan (राजस्थान)

Rajasthan is a state located in the northwest of India. Jaipur is the capital of Rajasthan and the largest city of the state. The state is bounded by Punjab in the north, Pakistan in the west, Madhya Pradesh in the south-east and Gujarat in the south-west, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana in the north-east. The total area of Rajasthan is about 3,42,239 square kilometers. Rajasthan is the largest state in India by area.

On the basis of archaeological and historical evidence, it is known that the history of Rajasthan begins from prehistoric times. Several dynasties emerged in the state from the seventh to the eleventh century, among which Meena, Gurjars, Rajputs, Mauryas, Jats, etc. were prominent. Akbar brought some Rajput states under Mughal rule. He became associated with the Marathas in the early 19th century. After the imposition of provincial autonomy in British-ruled India in 1935, there were many movements for civil liberties and political rights in Rajasthan. The process of uniting these scattered princely states began in the year 1948, which continued till the reorganization law came into force in the state in 1956.

The first Matsya Union was formed in 1948, which included only a few princely states. Gradually the other princely states also got mixed into it. By 1949, the main princely states like Bikaner, Jaipur, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer had joined it and it was named as 'Greater Rajasthan United States'. The present Rajasthan State duly came into existence in 1958 after Ajmer, Abu Road Taluka and Sunel Tappa were also included.


West Rajasthan is relatively dry and barren, some part of it also includes the Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert and is the end of the Ghaggar River. The Aravalli Range is the only hill in Rajasthan which includes Mount Abu and the world famous Dilwara Temple. East Rajasthan has two tiger reserves, Ranthambore and Sariska and near Bharatpur is the Keoladeo National Park, which has been built for the protection of birds. The state flower of Rajasthan is 'Rohera'. The state bird of Rajasthan is 'Vishal Bharatiya Tilor'. The state tree of Rajasthan is 'Khejdi'. The state animal of Rajasthan is 'Camel'. There are many rivers flowing in Rajasthan including Chambal, Kali Sindh, Banas, Banganga, Parvati, Gambhiri, Luni, Madi, Ghaggar (ancient Saraswati), Kakni, Som, Jokham, Katli and Sabi river.
The climate of Rajasthan is a dry to sub-humid monsoon climate. The temperature here ranges from 25 ° C to 46 ° C in summer and 8 ° to 28 ° C in winter. The average annual rainfall in the state is about 100 mm in the western desert. And 650 mm in the southeast part of the state. Happens till then.

The Chief Minister of Rajasthan is the head of government of the north-eastern state. According to the Constitution of India, the Governor of Rajasthan is the judiciary of the state, but the de facto executive authority is the Chief Minister. There are 200 assembly seats in Mizoram. There are 35 members in the Indian Parliament from the state, out of which 10 go to the Rajya Sabha i.e. the Upper House and 25 to the Lok Sabha.

The state currently has a Bharatiya Janata Party government. The current Chief Minister of Rajasthan is Ashok Gehlot. The first person to become the Chief Minister of Rajasthan was Heera Lal Shastri of the Indian National Congress. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 07 April 1949.

The current Governor of Rajasthan is Kalraj Mishra. Kalraj Mishra is sworn in as the Governor of Rajasthan on 9 September 2019.


Rajasthan is a mineral rich state and has a diverse economy with agriculture, mining and tourism being the main parts of development. Rajasthan also has a large mining area. The state is the top producer of polyester and the largest producer of cement in India, with a capacity of over 44 million tonnes per annum. Yet the industry of Rajasthan is relatively underdeveloped and so is the urbanization.
Agriculture is the mainstay of Rajasthan's economy. About 80% of the people of Rajasthan are dependent on agriculture and allied activities. The total cultivable land in Rajasthan is 27,465 thousand hectares and the sowing area is 20,167 thousand hectares. The major crops of the state are rice, barley, jowar, millet, maize, gram, wheat, oilseeds, pulses, cotton, red chillies, mustard, fenugreek, cumin, asafoetida and tobacco.
Rajasthan is making a lot of progress in the field of education since last few years. According to the 2011 census, the literacy rate of Rajasthan is 67.06%. The school level education in the state is affiliated to either the Rajasthan Board of Secondary Education or the Rajasthan Central Board of Secondary Education. There are nine universities and more than 250 colleges in the state. There are about 23 polytechnic colleges and more than 150 industrial training institutes.

Rajasthan has been culturally rich as well as rich in minerals. Several types of natural resources are also found in the state, mainly including lignite, fullersarth, tungsten, bentonite, gypsum, marble, crude oil (in the Jaisalmer region), taba, zinc, mica, emerald and ghee stone.

Major entrepreneurs in the state include textiles, woolen cloths, sugar, cement, glass, sodium plants, oxygen, vegetation, dyes, pesticides, zinc, fertilizers, rail cans, ball bearings, water and electricity meters, television sets, sulfuric acid, Synthetic threads and insulating bricks etc. The main industrial complexes of Rajasthan are in Jaipur, Kota, Udaipur and Bhilwara.


According to the 2011 census, Rajasthan has a population of 68,548,437 crores. Which has a population of 35,550,997 males and 32,997,440 females. The sex ratio of Rajasthan is 926 females per 1000 males. The largest cities of Rajasthan are Jaipur, Jodhpur and Kota.
The traditional dress for Rajasthani women is ghagra, choli (also known as kanchali or kurti) and odhani. A ghagra is a full-length, embroidered and pleated skirt that comes in a variety of colours, prints and fabrics, such as silk, cotton, georgette and crepe. The traditional dress for Rajasthani men is the dhoti and angrakha, or pyjama-kurta. Dhoti is a long piece of cloth tied around the waist and wrapped between the legs like a loincloth. It is paired with a tunic.
The state of Rajasthan has its own tradition and culture, the jewelery of this state consists of kudak, murki, oganya, totti and gurda, which are ear-worn jewels and the jewel worn on the satta waist. The popular dance of Rajasthan is the Katputli dance. Parallel art of inscriptions, epigraphy and literature also holds an important place among the tools of history. It contains many subjects such as architecture, sculpture, paintings, currency, garments, cosmetics, household appliances, etc., which can be divided again into different parts.
The official language of this place is Rajasthani. Other languages spoken by the people of Rajasthan include Marwari, Jaipuri or Dhundari, Malvi, Mewati, Braj and Hindi.
Rajasthan has its own distinct specialty of food. Rajasthani food is a particularly vegetarian food and it has become famous all over the world due to its taste. In Rajasthani food, gram flour, lentils, matha, curd, dried spices, dry fruits, ghee, milk are used more and more. Major dishes of Rajasthan include Gatta Khichdi, Dil Khushal, Boonday Raita, Rajasthani Kadhi, Churma Laddus, Sweet Bajra Roti, Bhujia, Sangri, Dal Bati, Churma, Pitaur ki Sabzi, Dal Ki Puri, Mawa Malpua, Bikaneri Rasgulla, Ghevar, Contains turmeric greens, jhajaria, halva, balushahi, gaundi, gatta sabzi and panchkut.
Various types of festivals are celebrated in Rajasthan like the Indian states. Apart from the national festivals of the country, Holi, Deepawali, Vijayadashami, Teej, Gangaur, Christmas, birthdays of many deities, saints and folk heroes are celebrated. The famous fairs of Rajasthan include Pushkar cattle fair, Nagaur fair, Shri Mahavir ji Sawai Madhopur fair, Ramdeora (Jaisalmer), Jambheshwar ji fair, Desert festival, Shyam ji fair (Sikar) and Kolayat fair.
Other tribes found here include Meena, Banjare, Gadiya Lohar, Bhil, Gracia, nomads and cattle.
Tourism is a very important part of Rajasthan's economy. The Thar Desert is one of Rajasthan's favorite tourist destinations. Jaipur in Rajasthan is very famous for its magnificent forts, palaces and beautiful lakes, which attract tourists from all over the world. Important tourist places here are Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur, Bikaner, Mount Abu, Pushkar, Ajmer, Jaisalmer, Pali, Chittorgarh, Alwar, Bharatpur, Kota, Bundi, Deeg Mahal, Kaulvi and Keshavaraipatan.

There are a total of 33 districts in the state of Rajasthan, Jaipur is the largest district in the state by population, while the largest district by area is Raj Samand.

Rajasthan has the following 33 districts: - Ajmer, Alwar, Udaipur, Karauli, Kota, Ganganagar, Chittorgarh, Churu, Jaipur, Jalore, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Jhalawar, Jhunjhunu, Tonk, Dungarpur, Dausa, Dhaulpur, Nagaur, Pali, Pratapgarh, Banswara, Barmer, Baran, Bikaner, Bundi, Bharatpur, Bhilwara, Rajsamand, Sawai Madhopur, Sirohi, Sikar and Hanumangarh.


  • Total merchandise exports from Rajasthan stood at US$ 6.63 billion in FY20 and US$ 6.65 billion in FY21.
  • Rajasthan’s Gross State Domestic Product (GDP) increased at a CAGR (in Rs.) of 7.05% between 2015-16 and 2020-21. At a CAGR (in Rs.) of 10.86% between 2011-12 and 2020-21, the tertiary sector has been the fastest-growing sector and the largest contributor to Rajasthan’s economy in 2020-21, with a 45.44% share in the state’s GSVA.
  • According to the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflow in the state stood at US$ 461.40 million between October 2019 and March 2021.
  • Bureau of Investment Promotion (BIP) is the nodal agency of the Government of Rajasthan that facilitates investment in various sectors in the state. Rajasthan State Industrial Development and Investment Corporation (RIICO) is the sole agency in the state that develops land for industrial growth.
  • As of April 2021, Rajasthan had a total installed power-generation capacity of 26,084.92 MW, of which 3,836.62 MW was under the central sector, 8,230.65 MW (state utilities) and 14,017.65 MW (private sector). Of the total installed power-generation capacity, 13,344.49 MW was contributed by thermal, 1,939.19 MW by hydro and 10,244.50 MW by renewable energy.


Rajasthan FAQs:

𝒜. Rajasthan state got statehood on 1 November 1956.

𝒜. The capital of Rajasthan state is Jaipur.

𝒜. The folkdances of Rajasthan state are: Ghoomar, Chakri, Gangaur, Jhulan Leela, Jhuma, Suisini, Ghapal, Kalbelia.

𝒜. The state bird name is Great Indian bustard and the state animal name is Camel and Chinkara of Rajasthan state.

𝒜. The current chief minster is Ashok Gehlot and the governor is Kalraj Mishra of Rajasthan state.

𝒜. The name of state flower is Tecomella and the state tree is Khejri of Rajasthan state.

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