Haryana History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts
Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Haryana, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Haryana have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.
Haryana is a state located in the north of the country. The capital of Haryana is Chandigarh, being a Union Territory, it is also the capital of the state of Punjab. Rajasthan is situated in the south-west of the state, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in the north, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh in the east. The borders of Haryana lie on three sides of the Indian capital Delhi, due to which a large part of the National Capital Territory of Delhi is located in Haryana. have been found. The largest city of the state is Faridabad.
The area under the present Haryana state was subordinated to the British East India Company in the year 1803. In the year 1832 it was transferred to the then Northwestern Province and in 1858 the region became a part of Punjab. In the early 1960s, the demand for the establishment of states on a linguistic basis by the Punjabi-speaking Sikhs of North Punjab and the Hindi-speaking Hindus of Haryana region in the south started gaining momentum. With the passage of the Punjab Reorganization Act in 1966, Haryana along with Punjab became a separate state of India and thus the state of Haryana was established on 01 November 1966.
The area of the state of Haryana is 44,212 sq km. Has spread in. Its geographical location is 30.73 degrees north and 76.78 degrees east. The land of the state is very fertile and this state is called the green land of India. Haryana can be divided into two natural areas: the sub-Himalayan Terai and the Indo-Gangetic plains. The plains are fertile and have a slope from north to south and average elevation of 700 to 900 feet above sea level. Southwest Haryana is arid, sandy and barren. The state flower of Haryana is 'Kamal'. The state bird of Haryana is 'Shyam Francolin'. The state tree of Haryana is 'Peepal'. The state animal of Haryana is 'Krishna Deer'.
The state has three distinct seasons due to the different climatic conditions in the state. The mercury reaches 50 ° C in the months of May and June and the temperature drops to 01 ° C in December and January. The rainy season starts from July in Haryana and continues till September.
According to the Indian Constitution, the Governor appointed by the President is the constitutional head of state. He gets help and advice from the Council of Ministers, headed by the Chief Minister, to discharge his duties. There are 90 assembly seats in Haryana. 15 members go to Parliament from the state: 5 Rajya Sabha i.e. Upper House and 10 Lok Sabha i.e. Lower House.
The major national political parties of Haryana are Bahujan Samaj Party, Bharatiya Janata Party, Communist Party of India, Communist Party of India (Marxist), Indian National Congress and Nationalist Congress Party. While Haryana Haryana Janhit Congress (BL) and Indian National Lok Dal (INLD) are registered parties of the state. Along with this, there are 14 unrecognized political parties from Haryana.
The state is currently ruled by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). The current Chief Minister of Haryana is Manohar Lal Khattar. He was sworn in as the 10th Chief Minister of Haryana on 26 October 2014. The first person to become the Chief Minister of Haryana was Pandit Bhagwat Dayal Sharma of the Indian National Congress. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 01 November 1966.
The current Governor of Haryana isBandaru Dattatreya. Bandaru Dattatreya was sworn in as the Governor of Haryana on 07 July 2021.
Haryana is one of the richest states in the country and on the basis of per capita income, it is the second richest state in the country. The state's per capita income in the year 2012-13 has been Rs.1,19,158 lakhs Indian and in the year 2013-14 has been Rs.1,32,089 lakhs.
The soil of Haryana is suitable for agriculture and 60% of its land is irrigated. More than one-fourth of the population here cultivates agriculture. The major crops here are oilseeds, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes, pulses, barley, sorghum and millet.
According to the 2011 census, the literacy rate of Haryana is 76.64%. There are many government and private schools in the state, which are affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education or the Haryana Board of School Education. Rohtak, Sonipat and Gurgaon have emerged as hubs of higher education in the state. The National Brain Research Center of Haryana is the only neuroscience research and education institute in the country.
Several types of mineral substances are also found in the state, mainly including ceramic, limestone, quartz / silica sand, etc.
Panipat Refinery is the second largest refinery in South Asia. The steel and textile industry in the state of Haryana is also very developed. These states are at the forefront of production of cars, tractors, motorcycles, bicycles, refrigerators, scientific instruments.
According to the 2011 census, Haryana has a total population of 25,353,081 and its population density is 573.4 sq km. is. The sex ratio in the state is 877 females per 1000 males. Hindus abound in the state's population and people of other religions such as Muslims, Sikhs, Jains and Christians also live here. Apart from this, people from other communities like Dalits and Valmiki are also part of the population here.
Like other states of the country, the dress of Haryana is also quite different. At present the men of the state wear paint-coat, kudta-pyjama, jacket, jersey, safari-suit, jeans-paint, lower-t-shirt, paint-shirt, shoes-sandal-slippers, cap-turban etc. The women of the state are presently salwar-suit, kudta-kudti-lehenga, sari, lehenga-choli, chunni-jumper, pajami-suit-lower-t-shirt, paint-shirt, shoes-sandal-jooti-sandal, stars- Wears chundari with ghouls.
Haryanvi people are straightforward, simple, enterprising and hardworking. The region has its own famous folk songs, proverbs and musical instruments. The women here are devoted and hardworking and help men in the fields. Folk dances of the state include song dance, chhathi dance, khori or dance, raas leela, ghoomar dance, lur dance etc.
Like other states, the dress of Haryana is also quite different. The men of the state currently wear paint-coats, kudta-pajamas, jackets, jerseys, safari-suits, jeans-paint, lower-t-shirts, paint-shirts, shoes-sandal-slippers, cap-turban etc. The women of the state are presently in salwar-suit, kudta-kudti-lehenga, saree, lehenga-choli, chunni-jumper, pajami-suit-lower-t-shirt, paint-shirt, shoes-sandal-shoe-slippers, stars- Wears wagons.
Haryanvi is the mother tongue of the people of Haryana. Haryanvi is the most spoken language in the state. The official languages of the state are Hindi, Punjabi and English. Bangru, Bagdi and Ahirwati are spoken in other languages here.
Major dishes of Haryana include Bajra Khichdi, Kachri ki Sabzi, Singari ki Sabzi, Green Coriander Choleya, Methi Carrot, Kadhi Pakora, Mixed Dal, Khichdi, Bathua Raita, Tomato Chutney, Besan Masala Roti-Makhan, Bajra Roti Aloo- Makhan, brown roti-ghee, sweet rice, kheer, churma, malpua etc.
Lohri is the main festival of the state. People of all religions of Haryana celebrate their festivals. Major festivals of the state include Makar Sankranti, Holi, Dussehra, Deepavali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Eid, Kullu Dussehra, Shivaratri Fair, Sulini Mela, Manjar Mela, Mani Mahesh, Chodi Yatra, Renuka Mela, Lavi, Trade Mela etc.
Many types of tribes reside in Haryana. These include Bhat, Bodh, Gaddi, Gujjar, Jad, Lamba, Khampa, Kanaura, Kinnar Lahaula, Pangwala, Swangla, Beta, Beda and Domba etc.
Haryana is a major center of tourism in India. Haryana is rich in religious and historical buildings, which attract tourists from all over the world. Important tourist places here are Badhakal Lake, Damdama Lake, Karna, Kurukshetra, Surajkund, Morni Hills, Panchkula, Panipat, Prithviraj Kachari, Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary, Thaneshwar, Tilsar Lake, Yadavindra Gardens, Brahma Sarovar, Baan Ganga, Sthaneshwar Mahadev Temple , Embodied sarovar and Baba Farid dome etc.
There are a total of 22 districts in the state of Haryana, according to the 2011 census, Faridabad is the largest district in the state by population and Sirsa is the largest district by area.
Haryana has the following 22 districts: - Ambala, Karnal, Kurukshetra, Kaithal, Gurgaon, Charkhi Dadri, Jind, Jhajjar, Panchkula, Palwal, Panipat, Fatehabad, Faridabad, Bhiwani, Mahendragarh, Mewat, Yamunanagar, Rewari, Rohtak, Sirsa, Sonipat. And Hisar.
The state is one of India's largest automobile hubs and accounts for two-thirds passenger cars, 50% tractors, and 60% motorcycles manufactured in the country.
As per the advance estimates for 2021-22, the state’s GSDP at current prices has been estimated at Rs. 8,87,252 crore, an increase of 7% YoY. At current prices, Haryana’s GDP growth was projected at 15.8% for FY22.
The State Government of Haryana has been committed to creating a progressive business environment. The state offers a wide range of fiscal and policy incentives for businesses under the Industrial and Investment Policy, 2011.
Merchandise exports from Haryana reached US$ 12.06 billion in FY20 and US$ 11.60 billion in FY21.