Peru has a different place in the geography of the world. There are many things in this country that differentiate this country from other countries such as language, living, clothing, culture, religion, business. Lets learn about some such unique facts related to the Peru and important events related to Peru history, knowing that your knowledge will increase.
Peru Country Profile
The Inca Empire emerged as a powerful nation in the 15th century and established the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with its capital at Cuzco. In 1532, Spanish conquistadors arrived under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro with the aim of conquering Peru's empire rich in silver and gold. At that time Atahulpa had defeated his brother and gained power.
In the early 1700s, further reforms were introduced to further strengthen the Spanish Empire. All this was done at the expense of the local elite Creole. However, this did not have a predictable effect, as by that time the revolution for independence had begun to flourish in all the Spanish colonies.
Peru's independence revolution began under the leadership of Spanish-American landowners and their army, Simón Bolívar of Venezuela and José de San Martin of Argentina. San Martin led an army of about 4,200 soldiers. The expedition also included warships for which Chile was financed and launched in August 1820 from Valparaiso. On July 28, 1821, San Martin declared independence.
Peru is spread over an area of 1,285,216 km2 in western South America. It is surrounded by Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The Andes Mountains lie parallel to the Pacific Ocean; These geographically define three regions traditionally used to describe the country. The Costa (coast), to the west, is a narrow plain, largely dry except for valleys formed by seasonal rivers. The Sierra (mountainous region) is the region of the Andes; It includes the Altiplano plateau as well as the highest peak in the country, Huaskaran 6,768 meters. The third area is the Selva (forest), a wide expanse of flat terrain covered by the Amazon rainforest that extends east. About 60 percent of the country's area is located within this region.
Peru is one of the most commercialized economies in the South American region. Its GDP in 2007 was $ 198 billion, making it the 49th largest country in the world based on estimated purchasing power (PPP). During that year, a GDP growth rate of around 9% was recorded here. The Peruvian economy is currently the 48th largest in the world. Major industries include mining and refining minerals, steel and metal fabrication, fishing and fish processing, textiles, and food processing. The services sector represents 65% of the country's GDP; This is followed by agriculture with manufacturing at 26.4% and agriculture with 8.5%.
According to the Peruvian constitution of 1993, the official languages of Peru are Spanish and, in the regions where they are the prichunet, Quechua and other indigenous languages. Spanish is originally spoken by 82.6% of the people, 13.9% in Quechua and 1.7% in Aymara, while other languages are spoken by 1.8%.
Peru Important Facts
- Peru is officially called the Republic of Peru, a country located in the continent of South America.
- Peru is bordered by Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
- Peru gained independence from Spain on 28 July 1821.
- The total area of Peru is 1,285,216 sq km. (496,225 square miles).
- The official language of Peru is Spanish.
- The currency of Peru is named Nuevo Sol.
- According to the World Bank, Peru had a total population of 3.18 crore in 2016.
- Peru was officially declared the world's largest producer of cocaine in 2013 by the United Nations.
- Peru is the sixth largest producer of gold (gold) in the world. In 2010, Peru produced 162 tonnes of gold, according to Thomson Reuters.
- The National University of San Marcos, Peru is the oldest of the Americans, founded on May 12, 1551.
- Mount Huarascan (Mt. Huarascán) is the highest point in Peru and is part of the Western Andes. It is also the fourth highest peak in South America.
- There are 10 million alpacas in the world, and three-quarters of them live in Peru.
- The Amazon River is the longest river in the world. It rises in the Peruvian Andes in Nevado Missy and ends in the Atlantic Ocean.
- Peru is the largest exporter of asparagus in the world, Peru produced 117,000 metric tons of asparagus in 2012.
Peru Important History Events
- 16 november 1532 - Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire-Spanish ConquistadorFrancisco Pizarro orchestrated a surprise attack in Cajamarca, Peru,capturing Sapa Inca Atahualpa.
- 18 january 1535 - Conquistador Francisco Pizarro founded Ciudad de los Reyes,present-day Lima, Peru, as the capital of the lands he conquered for the Spanish Crown.
- 12 may 1551 - The National University of San Marcos, the oldest university inthe Americas, was founded in Lima, Peru.
- 19 february 1600 - The Peruvian stratovolcano Huaynaputina exploded in the most violent eruption in the recorded history of South America.
- 28 july 1821 - Peruvian War of Independence-Argentine general José de SanMartín declared the independence of Peru from Spain.
- 28 July 1821 - Peru declared its independence from Spain.
- 28 July 1821 - Peru declared independence from Spain.
- 08 October 1821 - General José de San Martin's government established the Peruvian Navy.
- 10 September 1823 - Simón Bolívar nominated as Peru's President.
- 06 August 1825 - Bolivia gained independence from Peru.
Populated Cities of Peru
Talara, Olmos, Tarapoto, Chosica, Callao, Huaraz, Arequipa, Pisco, Putina, Huacho, Lima, Trujillo, Urubamba, Coracora, Chulucanas, Puerto Maldonado, Chiclayo, Paita, Abancay, Moquegua, Ilo, Desaguadero, Tingo Maria, Jaen, Tarma, Tournavista, Ferrenafe, Mollendo, Moyobamba, Iquitos, Huancavelica, Santo Tomas, Huancayo, Huaura, Nuevo Rocafuerte, Piura, Pacasmayo, Juanjui, Cusco, Chimbote, Sicuani, La Oroya, Caballococha, Pativilca, Pucallpa, Huamachuco, Casma, Tocache, Tacna, Ica, Chancay, Chachapoyas, Nauta, Juliaca, Nasca, Sechura, Jauja, Camana, Ayaviri, Contamana, Huanta, Requena, Ayacucho, Huarmey, Sullana, Ilave, Huanuco, Pimentel, Satipo, Junin, Chincha Alta, San Ramon, Cajamarca, Chota, Cerro de Pasco, Lamas, Motupe, Cajabamba, Chilca, Puno, Tumbes, Puquio, Santiago, Otuzco, Salaverry, Puca Urco, Soldado Bartra, Andoas, Gueppi,