World Forest Day Quick Facts
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World Forest Day Brief
World Forest Day is celebrated every year on 21st March to give Importance to forests in different countries of the world. On March 21, night and day are equal in the Southern Hemisphere. This day is celebrated to commemorate the importance of forests and their contribution to Society.
World Forest Day History
World Forestry Day was celebrated for the first time in the year 1971. Van Mahotsav is being celebrated in India since July 1950. It was started by the then Home Minister Vice Chancellor K. M. Munshi.
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What is the definition of the Forest?
An area where the density of trees is high is called a forest. Forests cover about 9.4% of the earth and cover about 30% of the total land area. Once the forests were spread over 50% of the total land area.
Forest habitats for animals, affect the water cycle and are used for soil conservation, that is why it is called an important part of the Earth's biosphere.
Types of forests in India
Various types of forests are found in India, from the rain forests of Kerala in the south to the alpine forests of Ladakh in the north, from the deserts of Rajasthan in the west to the evergreen forests of the northeast. Climate, Soil type, Topography, and altitude are the main factors influencing the types of forests.
Forests are divided on the basis of their nature, structure, climate in which they grow and the environment around them. Forests (forests) in India can be classified (divided) into many parts due to different methods and specificity:-
They are found in those Himalayan mountain regions where the temperature is low. Straight tall trees are found in these forests, whose leaves are sharp and the branches are bent down, so that snow does not accumulate on their twigs. They contain cones instead of seeds, hence they are also called gymnosperms. There are many types of broad-leaf forests such as evergreen forests, Deciduous forests, Thorn forests, and Mangrove forests. The leaves of these forests are large and of different types.
The Western Ghats are found in high rainfall areas located in Northeast India and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. These forests thrive in areas where the monsoon lasts for several months. These trees form a continuous roof by adjoining each other.
Therefore, light does not reach the ground in these forests. When little light from this layer reaches the ground, only a few shade-loving plants can thrive on the earth. Orchids and ferns are found in abundance in these forests. The bark of these trees is covered with moss. These forests are abundant in animal and insect life.
Wet Evergreen Forest:
It is found along the Western Ghats in the south and Andaman and the Nicobar Islands and all over the Northeast. These forests are made up of tall, straight evergreen trees whose stems or roots are triangular in shape so that they stand upright even in storms. These trees grow long for a long distance, after which they spread like a flower of cabbage.
The main trees of these forests are jack fruit, betel nut, palm, jamun, mango and hallock. In these forests, stem plants grow close to the ground, accompanied by small trees and then tall trees. Beautiful ferns of different colors and many types of orchids grow along with the trees of these forests.
Semi Evergreen Forest:
These types of forests are found in the Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Eastern Himalayas. A mixture of moist evergreen trees and moist deciduous forests are found in these forests. These forests are dense and many types of trees are found in them.
These forests are found only in those areas where there is a moderate level of seasonal rainfall which lasts only a few months. Most of the forests in which teak trees grow are of this type. This tree sheds its leaves in winter and summer months.
In the months of March and April, new leaves start growing on these trees. These trees increase the presence of rain before the monsoon arrives. This is the season of falling leaves and increasing their width. Because light can reach the forest floor through these trees. Hence they grow densely.
These forests are found in places with low humidity in India. These trees live far and wide and are surrounded by green grass. Thorny trees are called which conserve water. In these, the leaves of some trees are small and the leaves of some trees are thick and waxy so that the evaporation of water can be reduced.
Thorny trees have long and fibrous roots that allow water to reach very deep. Many trees have thorns that reduce water loss and protect against animals.
It grows on the banks of river deltas and banks. These trees grow in all salty and pure water. These forests increase the soil brought by the rivers. The roots of mangrove trees grow out of the mud which also respire.
What are the main benefits of Forests?
Forests bring many benefits to the environment, people and animals. Forests provide a variety of products such as furniture, processed products for homes, railway sleepers, plywood, wood for fuel or charcoal and paper, cellophane, plastics, rayon and nylon etc., rubber from rubber trees, etc.
Fruits, arecanut and spices are also collected from the forests. Many medicinal plants like camphor, cinchona are also found in the forests. The roots of trees hold the soil tightly and thus prevent soil erosion and flooding during heavy rains.
Trees absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen that mankind needs to breathe. Vegetation influences local and global climate. Trees act as a protective shield for the earth and provide shelter to wild animals. They protect all living beings from the heat of the sun and regulate the temperature of the earth.
Forests reduce the reflection of light, control sound and help in changing wind direction and reducing speed. Similarly, wildlife is also important as they are an important part of our lifestyle.
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