Estonia History, Geography, Economy and Important Events

✅ Published on January 25th, 2021 in Country Information, Europe Continent

Estonia has a different place in the geography of the world. There are many things in this country that differentiate this country from other countries such as language, living, clothing, culture, religion, business. Lets learn about some such unique facts related to the Estonia and important events related to Estonia history, knowing that your knowledge will increase.

Estonia Country Profile


Estonia History

Estonia's area has been inhabited since at least 9,000 BCE. The ancient Estonians became the last European prophet to adopt Christianity after the Livonian Crusade in the 13th century. After centuries of continuous rule by Germans, Dens, Svedes, oles, and Russians, a distinct Estonian national identity emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

It ended in independence from Russia after the brief war of 1920 at the end of World War I, initially democratic before the Great Depression, Estonia ruled authoritarian from 1934 during the Era of Silence. During World War II (1939–1945), Estonia was repeatedly fought and annexed by the Soviet Union and Germany, eventually annexed into the East. After the loss of its de facto independence to the Soviet Union, Estonia's de jure state continuity was protected by diplomatic representatives and government-in-exile. A peaceful singing revolution against Soviet rule started in 1987, resulting in real independence on 20 August 1991.

Estonia Geography

Estonia is located on the eastern edges of the Baltic Sea at the level of the northwestern part of Eastern Europe. Estonia has more than 1,400 lakes. Most are very small, with the largest being Lake Peipas, 3,555 km2. There are many rivers in the country. The longest of them are Võhandu, Pärnu, and Ptsltsamaa. Estonia comprises 50% of the forest land. The most common tree species are pine, spruce, and birch.

Estonia Economy

Estonia is considered a high-income economy by the World Bank as a member of the European Union. According to the International Monetary Fund, the country's per capita GDP (PPP) in 2016 was $ 29,312. Due to its rapid growth, Estonia is often described as the Baltic Tiger next to Lithuania and Latvia. Estonia produces about 75% of its consumed electricity. In 2011, about 85% of it originated with locally mined oil shale. Alternative energy sources such as wood, peat and biomass produce about 9% of primary energy. Renewable wind power accounted for about 6% of total consumption in 2009. Estonia imports petroleum products from Western Europe and Russia. Estonia imports 100% of its natural gas from Russia. Oil shale energy, telecommunications, textiles, chemical products, banking, services, food and fishing, timber, shipbuilding, electronics and transportation are the major sectors of the economy.

Estonia Language

The official language, Estonian, belongs to the Finnic branch of Uralic languages. Estonian has a strong connection with the Estonian language spoken in Finland on the other side of the Gulf of Finland, and is one of the few languages ​​in Europe that is not of Indo-European origin. In terms of its origins, Estonian and Finnish are not related to their nearest geographical neighbors, Swedish, Latvian, and Russian, which are all Indo-European languages, despite some overlap in vocabulary due to lending.

Estonia Important Facts

  • Estonia, officially called the Republic of Estonia, is a country located in northern Europe.
  • Estonia borders the Finland Gulf to the north, the Baltic Sea to the west, Latvia to the south, and Russia to the east.
  • Estonia announced the restoration of independence on 20 August 1991.
  • Estonia has a total area of ​​45,227 square kilometers (17,462 square miles).
  • Estonian is the official language of Estonia.
  • Estonia's currency is named Euro.
  • Estonia had a total population of 1.3 million in 2016, according to the World Bank.
  • With a population of only 1.4 million, Estonia is the least populated member of the European Union.
  • Estonia's tallest mountain is Sur Munamägi, which has a height of 318 meters (1,043 ft).
  • Estonia became the first country in the world to hold political elections on the Internet in 2005.
  • Estonia became the first country in the world to provide e-residency in 2014.
  • Estonian high school students were ranked third in the world after Singapore and Japan in the 2015 PISA test.
  • Estonia was ranked third in the Press Freedom Index in 2007 and 2012.
  • Estonia has been a member of the League of Nations since 22 September 1921, the United Nations since 17 September 1991, the European Union since 1 May 2004, and NATO since 29 March 2004.

Estonia Important History Events

  • 02 february 1207 - Terra Mariana, comprising present-day Estonia and Latvia, was established as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • 15 june 1219 - Northern Crusades-According to a popular Danish legend, the Dannebrog (Flag of Denmark), today one of the oldest state flags in theworld still in use, fell from the sky and gave the Danish forces renewed hope to defeat the Estonians at the Battle of Lyndanisse.
  • 24 February 1918 - The European country Estonia gained independence from Russia.
  • 23 june 1919 - Estonian War of Independence-Estonian troops engaged theforces of the Pro-German Government of Latvia near Cesis, Latvia,recapturing the area four days later.
  • 23 April 1919 - The Estonian Constituent Assembly began its first session.
  • 02 february 1920 - The signing of the Treaty of Tartu ended the Estonian War ofIndependence, with Russia agreeing to recognize the independence of Estonia and renounce in perpetuity all rights to that territory.
  • 12 march 1934 - Supported by the Estonian Army, Konstantin Päts staged a coup d'état, beginning the Era of Silence.
  • 24 April 1938 - Kostantin Pats became Estonia's first president.
  • 17 june 1940 - The three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania fell under the occupation of the Soviet Union. The Soviet occupation of the Baltic States covers the period from the Soviet–Baltic mutual assistance pacts in 1939, to their invasion and annexation in 1940, to the mass deportations of 1941.
  • 21 July 1940 - The Soviet Union occupied Estonia Latvia and Lithuania.

Populated Cities of Estonia

Narva, Kohtla-Jarve, Parnu, Tallinn, Viljandi, Haapsalu, Tartu, Voru, Johvi, Kuressaare, Rapla, Polva, Jogeva, Paide, Rakvere, Kardla, Valga,

4 Neighbour countries of Estonia

Finland [M] , Latvia [LM] , Russia [LM] , Sweden [M] ,
International Border Definition: L = Land Border (भूमि सीमा)| M = Maritime Border (समुद्री सीमा)

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